System Upgrade With YUM
Upgrading your Fedora, or other RPM based system using YUM is fairly simple. Once you follow a few basic commands your system will automatically upgrade to the latest release.
1. Back up your system
Use rsync, an external drive, back up to the cloud or any other means you have available to protect your precious data.
2. Clean Stuff
Find unused config files
Merge and resolve the changes found by the following script: yum install rpmconf; rpmconf -a Now find and remove old config which nobody owns: find /etc /var -name '*.rpm?*'
Now is a good time to remove packages you don't use - especially non-standard packages.
3. Find and review "unused" packages
You can find packages not required by other packages with the tool package-cleanup from the yum-utils package: yum install yum-utils; package-cleanup --leaves. These packages could be candidates for removal, but check to see whether you use them directly or if they are used by applications not backed by rpm packages. Remove them with yum remove package-name-and-version.
Another useful tool for cleaning up unused packages is rpmreaper. It's an ncurses application that lets you view rpm dependency graph and mark packages for deletion. Marking one package can make other packages leaf, which you can see immediately, so you don't have to run the tool several times to get rid of whole sub-tree of unused packages. Install with: yum install rpmreaper.
Find and review "lost" packages
You can find orphaned packages (ie packages not in the repositories anymore) with: package-cleanup --orphans. This will also show packages which have been partially uninstalled but where the "%postun" script failed.
4. Start the upgrade
Go to a text console
ctrl + alt + F2
log in as root, and go into runlevel 3
Update yum to latest version available in your Fedora version
yum update yum
Clean the cache
Then remove all traces of the version you are leaving from the yum cache in /var/cache/yum.
yum clean all
Upgrade all packages
5. Make sure Fedora is upgraded
Distro-sync will usually take care of upgrades for the third party repositories you have enabled as well. Confirm with
after the upgrade process is over. yum might complain about conflicts or requirements. That is probably because you have used non-standard repositories or installed non-standard packages manually. Try to guess which packages cause the problem (or at least is a part of the dependency chain) - uninstall them and try again. Remember to install the packages again if they are essential.
Ensure that all (new) essential packages from the new version are installed with
yum groupupdate Base
You might want to update other groups too, see
yum groupupdate "GNOME Desktop Environment" \
"Development Tools" "Server Configuration Tools" \
"Hardware Support" "Sound and Video" \
"Graphical Internet" "Fonts" \
"Games and Entertainment" "Printing Software" \
"Administration Tools" "Office/Productivity" "System Tools"
6. Preparing for reboot
Before booting you should usually install the bootloader from your new grub by running
- where BOOTDEVICE is usually /dev/sda (If you get an error '/dev/sda does not have any corresponding BIOS drive' from that, then try /sbin/grub-install --recheck /dev/sda.)
Also, the order of init scripts could have changed from the previous version. A command to reset the order is:
cd /etc/rc.d/init.d; for f in *; do /sbin/chkconfig $f resetpriorities; done
Again, run package-cleanup --orphans to find packages that haven't been upgraded.
That's about it!
Unless you've been travelling the vast expanses of Siberia, the Amazonian forests, the north African desert, or a similar wasteland, you have probably heard of Google's Chrome OS. Following hot on the heals of their Google Chrome browser, the ChromeOS is designed primarily for laptops, notebooks, netbooks and will probably work on a tablet PC
To ensure, compatibility, speed and stability, Google restricted access to their OS. Primarily making it available pre-installed on new machines, to ensure a fast, stable, product for the user.
While following this line of logic, unfortunately it precludes users with existing hardware.
Ya know the scene, the machine ya bought with Windows pre-installed, which you tore off soon as you got it home, then quietly proceeded to install a Linux distro. Maybe Debian, Ubuntu, Arch or Fedora if you happen to favour RPMs.
Having wiped the evil empires efforts from your machine, and installed Linux, then you hear how good ChromeOS is on a light machine. Now you want to run ChromeOS. Only problem. Google does not offer a download site for their cool operating system. What to do next?
There is a way. Its not guaranteed to work 100%. Its not guaranteed to be headache free. But its still available to those that want it.
Hexxeh has been making ChromeOS available for download to the general public, since ChromeOS hit the streets.
hexxeh offers a daily release of ChromeOS that appears stable, and will probably work with your hardware.
ChromeOS is light, fast and frugal.
If you want to try it on your laptop or netbook, go to hexxeh website and download a USB image. Copy the image to your usb pen, and reboot your machine.
Try it, you might like it!
Yellowdog Updater Modified
Here's a quick simple howto for using YUM on a Fedora, Redhat, CentOS, or other RPM based system.
yum search package-name
Info on package
yum info package-name
Install packages. Automatic resolution of dependencies
yum install package-name
yum remove package-name
available yum list|less
List all installed packages
yum list installed|less
List all installed packages need updating
yum list updates|less
Cleaning of the system
Yum can leave a lot of chaff on the system. The files are stored in the /var/cache/yum/ directory. RPM packages can use up a lot of space.
Clean redundant RPM files
yum clean all
yum groupinstall "groupname"
Remember to include quotation marks
Search package names
yum list something
Find name of package containing file
yum provides filename
List packages recently added to repositories
yum list recent
List software groups
Install a software group
yum groupinstall "groupname"
Update a group
yum groupupdate "groupname"
Include a yes switch in your request
Use -y for yes
Include a cashe switch in your request
Use -C for cache only
That's about it!
Dired is an extremely useful Emacs command set allowing you the ability to edit directories like files. Dired is invoked inside Emacs using C-x d, producing output similar to Bash 'ls -l' command. This allows file and subdirectory manipulation, which can be enacted immediately or marked for later execution.
Here's a list of useful Dired Commands:
C-x d -- start dired mode
M-x dired -- start dired mode
Once dired mode starts the following keys effect the actions. Notice character input is upper case not lower.
d -- Delete
o -- open file in other window
v -- view file
C -- Copy
G -- Change group
M -- Chmod
O -- Chown
P -- Print
U -- Undo
X -- Shell command
Z -- Compress
C-g -- Cancel action
That's enough to get ya going!
Free Bed By Any Other Name