Gnu C Compiler
After you complete a new minimal install of Debian, and have your machine purring like a tuned Formula One engine, you will notice a number of things do not get installed by default. That's why you went minimal.
Perl and Python scripting languages are auto-installed, but not a 'C' compiler. As you're running Gnu/Linux, you probably want to use the Gnu 'C' compiler.
To get Gnu 'C' Compiler and set up a proper environment to compile programs written in 'C', run the following as root:
apt-get install glibc-doc manpages-dev libc6-dev gcc build-essential
That will get you up and running.
You can enhance the install further by also adding the following:
gcc-multilib make manpages-dev autoconf automake1.9 libtool flex bison gdb gcc-doc libc-dev
That's about it!